INTRODUCTION:-Vertigo is a type of dizziness, where there is a feeling of motion when one is stationary. The symptoms are due to a dysfunction of the vestibular system in the inner ear. It is often associated with nausea and vomiting as well as difficulties standing or walking.
CAUSES:-The most common causes are benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and vestibular migraine while less common causes include Ménière's disease and vestibular neuritis. Excessive consumption of ethanol (alcoholic beverages) can also cause notorious symptoms of vertigo.
SYMPTOMS:-Vertigo is a sensation of spinning while stationary. It is commonly associated with vomiting or nausea, unsteadiness, and excessive perspiration. Recurrent episodes in those with vertigo are common and they frequently impair the quality of life. Blurred vision, difficulty speaking, a lowered level of consciousness, and hearing loss may also occur. Central nervous system disorders may lead to permanent symptoms.
DIAGNOSIS:-Tests of vestibular system (balance) function include electronystagmography (ENG), rotation tests, caloric reflex test, and computerized dynamic posturography (CDP).Tests of auditory system (hearing) function include pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, acoustic-reflex, electrocochleography (ECoG), otoacoustic emissions (OAE), and auditory brainstem response test .Other diagnostic tests include magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computerized axial tomography (CAT or CT).
TREATMENT:-Definitive treatment depends on the underlying cause of the vertigo.Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is treated with the Epley maneuver (performed by a doctor or physical therapist, or with a BPPV maneuver at home), also treated by the use of anticholinergics and antihistamines.
Vestibular Rehabilitation Therapy: This form of treatment is also known as VRT, this is a physical therapy that is used to treat Vertigo. The main aim of this form of treatment is to minimize dizziness, improve balance and prevent falls by restoring to the normal functions of the vestibular system. 
Medications like diazepam (Valium) and meclizine (Antivert) are used to decrease inflammation within the vestibular system. Some patients are placed in a soft collar to limit range of motion of their heads while the vertigo gradually resolves. If there is concern that there is a viral infection causing the labyrinthitis or neuritis, antiviral medications like acyclovir (Zovirax) or Val acyclovir (Valtrex) may be considered.
PREVENTION:-People whose balance is affected by vertigo should take precautions to prevent injuries from falls. Those with risk factors for stroke should control their high blood pressure and high cholesterol and stop smoking. Individuals with Meniere's disease should limit salt in their diet.

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