INTRODUCTION:-Dehydration (hypohydration) is defined as an excessive loss of body fluid. It is literally the removal of water (Ancient Greek: ὕδωρ hýdōr) from an object, however in physiological terms, it entails a deficiency of fluid within an organism.There are three main types of dehydration: hypotonic or hyponatremic (primarily a loss of electrolytes, sodium in particular), hypertonic or hypernatremic (primarily a loss of water), and isotonic or isonatremic (equal loss of water and electrolytes). In humans, the most commonly seen type of dehydration by far is isotonic (isonatraemic) dehydration which effectively equates with hypovolemia, but the distinction of isotonic from hypotonic or hypertonic dehydration may be important when treating people who become dehydrated
CAUSE:-There are many things that can cause dehydration, the most common are vomiting, diarrhea, blood loss, malnutrition, and plain old failure to replenish liquids lost from sweating and urination (Not drinking enough water). Many illnesses and diseases can trigger acute dehydration due to the increased body temperature and sweating that usually occur. This is why your doctor tells you to drink plenty of fluids when you are ill. Your body uses fluids to expel toxins as well as to keep your system flexible, lubricated and running smoothly
SYMPTOMS:-Symptoms of dehydration usually begin with thirst and progress to more alarming manifestations as the need for water becomes more dire. The initial signs and symptoms of mild dehydration in adults appear when the body has lost about 2% of it's total fluid. These mild dehydration symptoms are often (but not limited to): Thirst,Loss of Appetite, Dry Skin ,Skin Flushing DarkColoredUrine,Dry Mouth ,fatigue or Weakness ,Chills ,Head Rushes
DIAGNOSIS:-In humans, dehydration can be caused by a wide range of diseases and states that impair water homeostasis in the body. These include:External or stress-related causes Prolonged physical activity with sweating without consuming adequate water, especially in a hot and/or dry environmentProlonged exposure to dry air, e.g., in high-flying airplanes (5%–12% relative humidity)Blood loss or hypotension due to physical traum.Diarrhea,Hyperthermia,Shock (hypovolemic),Vomiting,Burns,Lacrimation
TREATMENT:-If dehydration is the removal of water from an object, then the treatment of dehydration to reverse its effects would logically be rehydration. When a person becomes dehydrated they have also lost electrolytes so it is very important to replenish them along with the water. The type of electrolytes needed for rehydration are sodium and potassium salts usually found in sports drinks like Gatorade and pediatric formulas like Pedialite. Electrolytes are needed for electro-chemical reactions within cells. A lack of electrolytes in the body can interfere with the chemical reactions needed for healthy cell operation and is known as water intoxication. This can become a serious condition and has lead to death in extreme cases.
PREVENTION:-The average person loses between two and three litres of water a day through the breath, sweat, and urine. This number can increase or decrease based on the types of activities that a person engages in. Heavy exercise can cause a body to lose more than 2 litres an hour! To prevent dehydration you simply need to replenish the liquids that are lost throughout the day. Many resources and sites will tell you to drink 8 glasses of water a day, or give you a set number of litres to drink but the honest truth is that every BODY is different and only you will know how much your BODY needs.